What is ACL?
ACL refers to Anterior Cruciate Ligament. In the human body, the bone structure of the knee joint is formed by the femur, the tibia, and the patella. ACL is one of the four main ligaments within the knee that connect the femur to the tibia.
The knee is the basically the intersection joint that is supported by the medial collateral (MCL), lateral collateral (LCL), anterior cruciate (ACL) and posterior cruciate (PCL) ligaments. The ACL is located at the center of the knee, restraining the tibia from sliding out to the front of the femur, also allowing rotational stability to the knee.
ACL is generally one of the most frequent injured ligaments of the knee. People who play in risky sports, such as basketball, football, skiing and soccer have a high chance of getting ACL injury. About half of the injuries also include injuries to the meniscus, articular cartilage or other ligaments.
What Causes ACL tear?
It is calculated that about three-quarter of the ACL injuries are from non-physical contact activities while about one-quarter of them are cause by direct contact with another player or object. The ACL injuries are usually cause by cutting, pivoting or sidestepping movement, unusual landings or rough play.
Number of research reviews that female athletes have a higher chance of getting ACL injury than male in some sports, due to the dissimilarity in physical conditioning, muscular strength and neuromuscular control, while others also believe that ACL injury include pelvis and lower extremity alignment, increased ligamentous laxity, and the effects of estrogen on ligament properties.
What are the signs of ACL tear?
At the moment where the injury occur, you will suffer from pain, swelling and instable knee. After several hours, it will become more painful, the swell on your knee will get larger and your knee movement will become uncomfortable and more restricted.